Student rights are those rights, including but not limited to civil, contractual and consumer rights, which regulate student rights and freedoms and allow students to make use of their educational investment. These include such things as the right to free speech and association, to due process, equality, autonomy, safety and privacy, and accountability in contracts and advertising, which regulate the treatment of students by teachers and administrators. Students, here, include people attending schools, universities, colleges and other educational institutions. There is very little scholarship about Student Rights through out the world. Some countries, like Romania, in the European Union, have comprehensive student bills of rights, which are both clear and accessible to students. Most countries, however, like the United States and Canada, have a number of legislative documents and court precedents but do not have a cohesive bill of rights which students can easily access. There has been some criticism that student rights in North America are progressing at a much slower rate than they are progressing in Europe due, in part, to a lack of accessible information and due, in part, to the student government movement which has replaced the student union movement.Canada Canada, like the United States, has a number of laws and court precedents which regulate higher education and provide student rights. The Canadian Encyclopedia, which details issues of Canadian life and governance states that in Canada "Basic lly 2 sorts of rights apply to students: substantive rights - the actual rights that students should enjoy - and procedural rights - methods by which students claim their rights. This article is concerned with students in public institutions, although those in private schools can claim rights under the common law and provincial education Acts."  As yet the Canada does not have a national student Bill of Rights or comparable document. If and when one is put in place in Canada it is likely that this document will be called a Charter of Student Rights and Freedoms. The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is equivalent to the National Bill of Rights in the United States. The Canadian national student union or government is the Canadian Federation of Students and it has not put forth any such bill. France Primary and Secondary Schools Public Higher Education Laws and court precedent on student privacy rights Right to privacy in higher education In the AlBaho Case, a French criminal court found three senior academics at the Ecole Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris (ICPSE), guilty of email espionage on a graduate student. The ruling set an important precedent in e-mail privacy but it was also a landmark ruling in student rights since this was the first incident where academic staff were found guilty of a criminal act as a result of a complaint made by a student – and where those staff members had the full support of their institution.